The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency assigned to promote the progress of science and advance the nation’s health, prosperity, and welfare. As the funding source for 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by our nation’s colleges and universities, its annual budget of $7 billion supports nearly 11,000 grant awards per year through a rigorous review system. According to the Grant Training Center (GTC), prospective NSF applicants are encouraged to gauge enthusiasm for their subject matter by speaking with a program officer (whose contact information is typically provided in the Funding Opportunity Announcement). In constructing a proposal, applicants should set out a creative, original, and transformative idea, and be certain to write clearly, present a specific research plan and design, and set realistic timelines. It is also critical to present the intellectual merit and broad impact of your proposed research, as well as the potential for involving women and minorities. Unlike its medical counterpart, the National Institutes of Health, the NSF does not limit the number of resubmissions after a proposal is declined; however, each submission should convey a substantially revised proposal. The GTC recommends allotting a minimum of three months to develop a solid NSF proposal.